Research Methodology – a scientific problem solving guideline
When the organization has run, then problems or new goals will be arise. In order to get to study on a specific goal, the organization better to be guided by a research methodology.
The problem solving, will be discuss later on the Problem Solving topic-that will discuss about more simple and effective study with the specific purpose. Now, we will discuss about the research methodology, a basic scientific guideline on doing a study.
What is Research methodology?
Redman and Mory (1932), defined Research is a systematized effort to gain a new knowledge. Research is also known as the art of investigation. Therefore, if you found that one thing that like to be opened or if you have a question to be answered systematically then a research should be conducted. In doing a research better to used a methodology – emphasizing on the method or process. So, by applying research methodology, one not one would get the outcomes of the questioning matter but also the process involved. The research methodology would be done with the research methods – techniques/methods that are adopted for conducting research.
Although every research has its own specific objectives, the research objectives could be broadly group into:
to gain familiarity with or new insight into a phenomenon (ie. Formulative research study)
to accurately portray the characteristics of a particular individual, group, or a situation (i.e. Descriptive research study)
to analyze the frequency with which something occurs (i.e. Diagnostic research study)
to examine a hypotheses of a causal relationship between variables (i.e. Hypothesis-testing research studies)
Types of research
There are 3 basic types of research:
Descriptive vs analytical research
Main objective of the descriptive research is describing the state of affairs as it prevails at the time of study. Descriptive research comprises survey and fact-finding, i.e. Consumer behaviour, inquiries of different types.
In analytical research, is using the already available facts or information, and analyze them to make a critical evaluation of the subject.
Applied vs Fundamental research
Applied research is an attempt to find a solution to an immediate problem encountered by an organization or the society.
Fundamental research mainly concern generalizations and formulation of the theory.
Quantitative vs qualitative research
Quantitative research relates to aspects that can be quantified or can be express in term of quantity. While qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon or the aspects relating to or involving quality or kind, i.e. Motivating research.
Conceptual vs Empirical
Conceptual research is a research related to some abstract idea or theory. Mainly this kind of research used by philisophers and thinkers in developing new concepts or for reinterpreting the existing one.
While Empirical research will exclusively relies on observation or experience with hardly any regard for theory and system. This kind of research also known as Experimental type of research.
What is the good Research?
A good research should be:
Systematic: out of guessing or intuition within
Well controlled: variables are identified
Logical: guided by logical reasoning
Empirical: provide a good validity and free of bias
Replicable: could be verified by others study
The research process:
Establishing the problem or doing the conceptualization.
The first and foremost stage in the research process is to select and defining problem properly. Sometime the problem became so complicated. For example: the environment, large amount of individual involved, etc.
The literature survey is intended not to duplicate the research. By duplicating the research, means only spending cost without not getting much benefits. Sometimes by doing exploring the references, some problems could be fixed without any study made.
Developing of hypotheses
Hypotheses should tell exactly what will be examine about. Hypotheses must be a meaningful statement which is not answered yet. Hypotheses statement generally consist of: Conditions and its results. Sometime it could be a predictive statement, that should be tested using a scientific methods that involved an independent and dependent variables.
Preparing the Research design
Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economic in procedure; it constitutes the blueprint for collection, measurement and analysis of data.
Sampling plan and data collection
Sampling plan will describe about the number, condition, how to collecting samples. Sampling plan may be classified into representation basis: non-probability or non-random sampling and probability or random sampling, and the element selection technique.
Processing and analysis of data
There is standard method to analysis all kinds of data (documents, interview, observation, and questioners). The right choice of a method for data analysis depends on the quality of data, purpose of study,and your knowledge. Statistics software should be used for doing the quantitative analysis
Statistic analysis is a tool in the process of decision making by means of the data on hand. Statistical approach also enable to do a scientific guessing of the future events also. The interpretation of the results from statistical analysis become very important. Statistic is concerned with aggregates and not just only a single data. Therefore the statistical results would be valid for a majority of the objects, in a normal situations.
Report is a written document on a particular topic, which conveys information, ideas and recommendation. All points in the report should be clear, and all information within should be correct and supported by evidence. The report should be concise with information kept to a necessary minimum and arrange logically under heading. All material should be included in a complete report.
“By understanding the research methodology,
one could do a better research design and
finishing projects in a systematic manner”.